Static File Content

As seen in the Routing chapter, Perfect is capable of complex dynamic routing. It is also capable of serving static content including HTML, images, CSS, and JavaScript.

Static file content serving is handled through the StaticFileHandler object. Once a request is given to an instance of this object, it will handle finding the indicated file or returning a 404 if it does not exist. StaticFileHandler also handles caching through use of the ETag header as well as byte range serving for very large files.

A StaticFileHandler object is initialized with a document root path parameter. This root path forms the prefix to which all file paths will be appended. The current HTTPRequest's path property will be used to indicate the path to the file which should be read and returned.

StaticFileHandler can be directly used by creating one in your web handler and calling its handleRequest method.

For example, a handler which simply returns the request file might look as follows:

    request, response in
    StaticFileHandler(documentRoot: request.documentRoot).handleRequest(request: request, response: response)

However, unless custom behaviour is required, it is not necessary to handle this manually. Setting the server's documentRoot property will automatically install a handler which will serve any files from the indicated directory. Setting the server's document root is analogous to the following snippet:

let dir = Dir(documentRoot)
if !dir.exists {
    try Dir(documentRoot).create()
routes.add(method: .get, uri: "/**", handler: {
    request, response in
    StaticFileHandler(documentRoot: request.documentRoot).handleRequest(request: request, response: response)

The handler that gets installed will serve any files from the root or any sub-directories contained therein.

An example of the documentRoot property usage is found in the PerfectTemplate:

import PerfectLib
import PerfectHTTP
import PerfectHTTPServer

// Create HTTP server.
let server = HTTPServer()

// Register your own routes and handlers
var routes = Routes()
routes.add(method: .get, uri: "/", handler: {
        request, response in
        response.appendBody(string: "<html>...</html>")

// Add the routes to the server.

// Set a listen port of 8181
server.serverPort = 8181

// Set a document root.
// This is optional. If you do not want to serve 
// static content then do not set this.
// Setting the document root will automatically add a 
// static file handler for the route
server.documentRoot = "./webroot"

// Gather command line options and further configure the server.
// Run the server with --help to see the list of supported arguments.
// Command line arguments will supplant any of the values set above.

do {
    // Launch the HTTP server.
    try server.start()
} catch PerfectError.networkError(let err, let msg) {
    print("Network error thrown: \(err) \(msg)")

Note the server.documentRoot = "./webroot" line. It means that if there is a styles.css document in the specified webroot directory, then a request to the URI "/styles.css" will return that file to the browser.

The following example establishes a virtual documents path, serving all URIs which begin with "/files" from the physical directory "/var/www/htdocs":

routes.add(method: .get, uri: "/files/**", handler: {
    request, response in

    // get the portion of the request path which was matched by the wildcard
    request.path = request.urlVariables[routeTrailingWildcardKey]

    // Initialize the StaticFileHandler with a documentRoot
    let handler = StaticFileHandler(documentRoot: "/var/www/htdocs")

    // trigger the handling of the request, 
    // with our documentRoot and modified path set
    handler.handleRequest(request: request, response: response)

In the route example above, a request to "/files/foo.html" would return the corresponding file "/var/www/htdocs/foo.html".